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Southeastern Arizona Bird Observatory

Hummingbirds of Arizona

(Updated 4 February 2010)
The Arizona Hummingbird Survey!

Arizona boasts 18 species of hummingbirds - more than any other state except Texas. SABO has received funding from the Arizona Bird Conservation Initiative to begin a statewide citizen-science project to document the distribution of Arizona's hummingbirds, the timing of their breeding and migration cycles, and the natural and man-made habitats on which they depend. Birders, gardeners, and other hummingbird enthusiasts are invited to contribute to this effort.

For updates on this project and more information on how you can participate, please visit the Arizona Hummingbird Survey Web site.

Scroll down to browse the species list in taxonomic order
or
choose a species from the alphabetical menu below:

All photos, graphics, and text on these pages are protected by international copyright laws
and may not be used without permission.

Violet-crowned Hummingbird
Amazilia violiceps
Violet-crowned by Sheri WilliamsonSize:
4 1/2"
Adults: large, entire underparts snow white, crown bright blue-violet, bill red with black tip, back and tail dull grayish green to bronze-green
Juveniles: duller with pale feather edging
Similar species: female Broad-billed is smaller with pale gray underparts, whitish line behind eye, green back, dark tail with dingy whitish corners
Range: nests from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico to southwestern Mexico, resident from central Sonora south
Status in AZ: uncommon and local summer resident, rare winter resident; most often seen at the Patons' feeders in Patagonia and in the Mule Mountains, more rarely elsewhere including Miller Canyon, San Pedro River; a few winter in Arizona, mainly around Patagonia and the Mule Mountains
Habitat: cottonwood and sycamore forest along desert and canyon streams
Nesting season: mostly July-September
Migration: most individuals leave breeding range by late fall to winter in western Mexico; a few have wandered to western Texas and California
(for more Violet-crowned photos, see the Banning Creek Photo Album and the Hummingbird Banding Photo Album)

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Berylline Hummingbird
Amazilia beryllina beryllina
Size:
4 1/2"
Berylline Hummingbird, femaleAdults: large, throat and breast glittering green, slightly duller and slightly scaly-looking in female; belly dull fawn to brownish gray; flight feathers with bright cinnamon band at base (most visible in flight); upperparts bright green to rump, blending to rufous brown upper tail coverts and tail; tail dark red-brown glossed with plum purple to violet iridescence; bill blackish with orange-red at base of lower mandible
Juveniles: slightly duller with pale feather edging
Similar species: male Magnificent has black breast with dark green sheen, white spot behind eye, violet-purple crown (not always visible), dark bronze-green tail; hybrids have occurred with Magnificent and Broad-billed
Range: Sierra Madre of northwestern Mexico south and east to Isthmus of Tehuantepec (subspecies)
Status in AZ: rare and local summer resident; records for Ramsey Canyon, Miller Canyon, Cave Creek Canyon, Madera Canyon, Chiricahua National Monument
Habitat: pine-oak woodland and sycamore streamside forest in mountain canyons
Nesting season: mostly July-September
Migration: typically arrives in Arizona at or just prior to beginning of rainy season (June, July); has nested in Huachuca and Chiricahua mountains

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Cinnamon Hummingbird
Amazilia rutila
Size: 4 1/2"
Adults: large, underparts bright cinnamon; upperparts bright green to rump, blending to rufous upper tail coverts and tail; tail glossed with green iridescence; bill orange-red with black tip; Juveniles are slightly duller with pale feather edging
Similar species: Berylline has iridescent green throat and breast, darker red-brown tail with purple to violet iridescence, bright cinnamon band in wings (most visible in flight)
Range: Pacific coast of Mexico from central Sinaloa south to Costa Rica, northern and eastern coasts of Yucatan Peninsula to northeastern Belize; 2 records from U.S. (Patagonia, AZ, southern NM)
Status in AZ: accidental; first U.S. record from Patagonia
Habitat: tropical deciduous forest, cottonwood-willow streamside forest
Nesting season: summer through early fall
Migration: little known

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Broad-billed Hummingbird
Cynanthus latirostris
Size:
4"
Broad-billed male by Sheri WilliamsonBroad-billed female and fledgling by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male (far right): glittering cobalt blue throat blends into deep emerald green breast and upper belly, bill red and black, back deep emerald green; tail steel blue with dark gray edges widest on central feathers; lower belly and undertail coverts pale to medium gray; Juvenile male similar to female but with some blue on throat, more red on bill
Female (near right): plain pale to medium gray throat and underparts, pale line behind eye with dark stripe below, bill black with red-orange at base, back and crown deep green, outer tail feathers blue-black and white, rounded; Juvenile female slightly duller with pale feather edging
Similar species: White-eared has shorter, thinner bill, proportionally larger, more rounded head, broader white eye stripe; male Magnificent is much larger, with no red on bill; female Black-chinned has grayish green back, tail banded in gray-green, black and white, all-black bill; Blue-throated male and female are very large with plain gray underparts, large white tips on outer tal feathers, all-black bill
Range: nests from southeastern Arizona through central Sonora, resident from southern Sonora to central and southwestern Mexico; rare in summer in southwestern New Mexico and far western Texas
Status in AZ: common to abundant spring and summer resident in drainages of Santa Cruz River (Patagonia, Nogales, Santa Rita Mts.), uncommon to rare outside this core range, including Mule Mountains, Huachuca Mountains; rare in winter at lower elevations
Habitat: desert scrub, woodlands
Nesting season: spring through summer
Migration: most individuals leave breeding range by October to winter in western Mexico, a few remain in Arizona all year or wander east or west in fall

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White-eared Hummingbird
Hylocharis leucotis
Size:
4"
White-eared male by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male: brilliant turquoise green of throat becomes separate spangles on white background on lower breast and flanks, broad blue violet band completely encircles base of bill in mature males (2 yrs. and older); bill, short, thin, straight, red and black; back deep green with rusty wash, slightly notched tail emerald to bronze green, outer feathers darker; lower belly and undertail coverts white
Juvenile male: similar to female but with a distinct green patch on throat, more red on bill
Female: white to pale cream throat spangled with golden green to turquoise green, belly white, broad white line behind eye with broad blackish stripe below, bill black with some red-orange at base, back and crown deep green; tail slightly notched, outer feathers tipped in dingy white, rounded; Juvenile female shows distinct pale feathers edges, darker bill
Similar species: female and juvenile male Broad-billed have longer, stouter bill, proportionally smaller, more rounded head, grayish underparts, narrower whitish line behind eye, dark blue outer tail feathers; Blue-throated male and female are very large with plain gray underparts, large white tips on outer tal feathers, all-black bill
Range: nests in southeastern Arizona and northwestern Mexico, resident from central Sonora south to southern Central America
Status in AZ: currently rare but regular spring and summer resident in Huachuca Mts. (Miller Canyon, Ramsey Canyon), very rare elsewhere in mountains of southeastern Arizona
Habitat: mountain oak woodland, pine-oak forest
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: arrive late March to late April, leave breeding range by October to winter in western Mexico; has nested in Huachuca Mountains

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Magnificent Hummingbird
Eugenes fulgens
Size:
5 1/4"
Magnificent female by Sheri WilliamsonMagnificent immature male by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male: very large, dark, with bright turquoise green gorget, violet to purple crown, small white triangle behind eye, black breast, dark green back, gray undertail coverts, bronze green notched tail
Juvenile male (near right): deep green back, dark gray underparts often with some patchy black feathers, shows a central patch of bright green gorget feathers and spots of violet on crown, smudgy whitish tips on outer tail feathers; appears scaly all over from pale feathers edges
Female (far right): very large, medium gray throat and underparts, small white triangle and uneven pale stripe behind eye, bill long and all black, back deep green, outer tail feathers banded bronze green, black and grayish white; call note is a sharp tschip; Juvenile female often appears scaly below
Range: eastern and southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico and western Texas, year-round resident from western Mexico to Costa Rica; rare visitor to Colorado
Status in AZ: uncommon to common spring and summer resident in higher mountains of southeastern Arizona (especially Chiricahuas, Huachucas, Santa Ritas.), uncommon to rare north of Mogollon Rim and east into western New Mexico
Habitat: conifer forest, oak woodland in mountain canyons
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: most individuals leave breeding range by October to winter in western Mexico, a few are resident around feeders in southeastern Arizona

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Blue-throated Hummingbird
Lampornis clemenciae
Size:
5 1/4"
Blue-throated male by Sheri WilliamsonBlue-throated female by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male (far right): very large, with bright blue gorget, bold white stripe behind eye, dark gray cheek, narrow white streak along jaw line, crown and shoulders bright green, lower back bronze green blending to blackish rump, tail blue-black with large white corners; sings a monotonous tseep tseep tseep..., like a squeaky wheel, from an exposed perch in the forest subcanopy
Juvenile male: shows less blue in gorget than adult male, pale feather edging on back and head
Female (near right): similar to male but with gray throat; bill medium length (shorter than in female Magnificent)
Range: uncommon and local summer resident in mountains southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico and western Texas, year-round resident in mountains of Mexico; rarely wanders to Colorado, California, Gulf Coast
Status in AZ: locally common spring and summer resident in Huachuca and Chiricahua Mountains, rare to uncommon elsewhere in southeastern Arizona; most common in Cave Creek Canyon, Ramsey Canyon, uncommon to rare in Miller Canyon, Madera Canyon
Habitat: streamside forests of Arizona Sycamore and Bigtooth Maple in mountain canyons
Nesting season: late spring through summer.
Migration: most individuals leave breeding range by October to winter in western Mexico, a few are resident around feeders in southeastern Arizona

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Plain-capped Starthroat
Heliomaster constantii
Size: 5 1/2"
Plain-capped Starthroat adult by Tom WoodPlain-capped Starthroat adult by Tom WoodAdults: very large with extremely long, black bill; gorget dull blackish with broad cherry red band at base, often with scaly appearance from pale feather edges; upperparts bronze green to olive green with ragged white vertical stripe on lower back; underparts medium gray with whitish stripe down midline of breast and belly; slightly notched tail bronze green and blackish with white tips on outer 4 pairs of feathers (3 in most other species); wings extend to tail tip or beyond
Juveniles: like adults but no red on dark gray-brown throat, pale feather edgings on back and head
Range: nests from central Sonora through northwestern Costa Rica, resident from southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa south
Status in AZ: rare post-breeding visitor; recent localities include Ash CanyonMadera Canyon, Cave Creek Canyon, Coronado National Memorial, Patagonia.
Habitat: tropical deciduous forest, cottonwood-willow streamside forest, and oak woodland in lower to middle elevations
Nesting season: late winter through mid-summer
Migration: returns to southern and central Sonora by March, most AZ records post-breeding (Jun-Aug).
(for more Starthroat photos, see the Miller Canyon Photo Album)

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Lucifer Hummingbird
Calothorax lucifer
Size:
3 3/4"Lucifer female by Tom Wood
Lucifer male by Tom WoodAdult male (near right): small, slim, with slightly curved bill, brilliant magenta to blue-violet gorget, upper breast and sides of neck white; tail deeply forked, outer feathers long, narrow and blackish; Juvenile male similar to female but usually with some colored feathers in gorget
Female (far right): small, slim, with slightly curved bill, pale rusty underparts, dark, curving line behind eye; tail long and very narrow, outer feathers banded rufous, black, and white
Range: nests from western Texas, southern New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona to southern Mexico, resident in southern parts of range
Status in AZ: rare but regular summer resident in Cave Creek Canyon, Mule Mountains, and Ash Canyon, rare and irregular in Santa Rita Mountains; very rare nest records include Chiricahua, Mule, and Santa Rita mts.
Habitat: desert scrub and mountain woodlands
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds in April, leaves by early fall to winter in western Mexico

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Ruby-throated Hummingbird
Archilochus colubris
Size:
3 3/4"
Ruby-throated Hummingbird, adult maleRuby-throated Hummingbird, femaleAdult male (far right): gorget scarlet to coppery red with narrow, velvety black "chinstrap," face blackish, crown green, upper breast and partial collar white, tail deeply notched to forked, black with pointed outer feathers; Juvenile male similar to female but usually with conspicuous "five o'clock shadow" in rough outline of adult gorget, often with a few colored feathers
Female (near right): pale gray to whitish below, bright green above, bill medium length and straight to slightly decurved, outer tail feathers pointed (rounded in Juvenile female), banded gray-green, black and white; call note is a soft tchew or nasal tchup. Very similar to female Black-chinned but with longer tail, shorter bill, greener upperparts, and narrower, straighter wing tips.
Similar species: male Anna's is larger with rose red to coppery red crown and throat with no black "chinstrap," dingy gray chest, long gray tail with narrow, rounded outer feathers, sings a scratchy/squeaky song; male Broad-tailed is larger with bright rose red throat with no black "chinstrap," grayish face, long tail with rounded outer feathers and rufous edging on some inner feathers, modified wing feathers trill in flight
Range: nests from Atlantic Coast states west to central Texas and Oklahoma, north to southern Canada (westward to western Alberta); winters in western and central Mexico, southern Florida, casually along Gulf Coast; extremely rare (and probably overlooked) vagrant in U.S. west of the Great Plains.
Status in AZ: accidental; first documented record for Arizona, an adult female, spent the winter of 2005 in Tucson; see photo album for more information. An adult male spent part of the fall of 2007 and 2008 in Patagonia. Females and young males are probably overlooked in fall migration and winter, mistaken for Black-chinned, Anna's or Costa's.
Habitat: deciduous and mixed forest and woodland
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds between last week of February (south) and mid-May (north), leaves in fall to winter in southern Mexico and Central America (south to Costa Rica); most likely to be seen west of Great Plains from August through October.

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Black-chinned Hummingbird
Archilochus alexandri
Size:
3 3/4"
Black-chinned Hummingbird, femaleBlack-chinned male by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male (near right): gorget velvety black with a violet band at the bottom, upper breast and partial collar white, outer tail feathers black, pointed; performs a J-shaped display flight accompanied by a shrill twitter, probably created by air rushing over the wings and/or tail; Juvenile male similar to female but usually with conspicuous "five o'clock shadow" in rough outline of adult gorget, often with a few colored feathers
Female (far right): pale gray below, dull to moderately bright green above with a dingy grayish crown, bill long and slightly decurved, outer tail feathers pointed (rounded in Juvenile female), banded gray, black and white; call note is a soft tchew.
Range: nests from central Texas and Oklahoma west to California, and central Mexico north to southern British Columbia; winters in western and central Mexico
Status in AZ: common to abundant summer resident (mostly April-September) in lower to middle elevations
Habitat: oak woodland, streamside forest and woodland, thickets of mesquite and hackberry in desert scrub
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds in spring, leaves in fall to winter in western and southern Mexico; occasionally wanders east during migration and winters along Gulf Coast

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Anna's Hummingbird
Calypte anna
Size:
4"
Anna's female by Sheri WilliamsonAnna's male by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male: rose red to coppery red gorget with elongated corners, crown the same color, upper breast gray; tail long, deeply notched, outer tail feathers gray, blunt-tipped; sings a scratchy, squeaky song from an exposed perch; Juvenile male similar to female but usually with conspicuous "five o'clock shadow" in rough outline of adult gorget, often with many colored feathers by late summer
Female: dull to bright green above, grayish below, bill medium length and straight, tail long, notched, with rounded outer feathers banded gray, black and white; adult female usually has an irregular patch of red or copper in the center of the throat; call note is a rich chip or chik
Similar species: male Broad-tailed is larger with bright rose red throat with no black "chinstrap," grayish face, long tail with rounded outer feathers and rufous edging on some inner feathers, modified wing feathers that trill in flight; male Ruby-throated is smaller, with green crown, blackish face, deeply notched black tail
Range: resident from California east to far western Texas, north to southern British Columbia
Status in AZ: common year-round resident in lower elevations of southern and central Arizona, including Tucson, common to abundant visitor late summer through early fall in southeastern mountains (particularly Huachucas, Santa Ritas, Santa Catalinas, Mules)
Habitat: woodland, chaparral, desert scrub, urban and suburban areas
Nesting season: late winter through spring
Migration: mostly resident, wanders south and into the mountains in summer and fall

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Costa's Hummingbird
Calypte costae
Size: 3 1/2"
Costa;s Hummingbird, femaleCosta's Hummingbird, adult maleAdult male: small, violet to purple gorget with extremely long extensions at corners, crown the same color, throat, upper breast, and midline of belly white, outer tail feathers gray, pointed; song is a shrill whee-oo during elliptical display flights; Juvenile male similar to female but usually with conspicuous "five o'clock shadow" in rough outline of adult gorget, often with few to many colored feathers
Female: small, pale gray below, green above, occasionally with blackish or iridescent purple spot in center of throat, bill very short and thin; wings usually reach tip of short, notched tail, rounded outer tail feathers banded gray, black and white; call note is a weak, dry tik or tchik
Range: resident in southern California east to southeastern Arizona, western Mexico, nests north to central California, southern Nevada and Utah; "wintering" range extends south and east of nesting range on Pacific slope of Mexico (late summer-early winter)
Status in AZ: uncommon to common year-round resident in west and southwest; uncommon to rare spring resident and late summer visitor in southeastern AZ, including Miller Canyon, Mule Mountains; most easily found in Sonoran Desert (Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Sabino Canyon, Saguaro National Park) February-May.
Habitat: nests in desert scrub, chaparral, thornscrub, tropical deciduous forest, suburban areas; may "winter" in oak woodland or conifer forest in mountains (late summer through early fall)
Nesting season: late winter through spring
Migration: some individuals resident in southern parts of range; migrants arrive on breeding grounds in late winter to early spring, may wander to higher elevations in summer and fall

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Rufous Hummingbird
Selasphorus rufus
Size:
3 3/4"
Rufous female by Sheri WilliamsonAdult male (far right): red-orange to yellow-orange gorget; back, rump and upper tail coverts bright rufous, upper half of back often spangled with green or entirely green; tail feathers rufous with black tips, pointed, second pair from center distinctly notched near tip; modified outer primaries make a metallic whine in flight; Juvenile male similar to female but with more rufous on upper tail coverts and central tail feathers, more heavily spangled throat, often with a few orange feathers (not safely separable from Juvenile male Allen's in the field)
Female (near right): pale rufous and cream below, bright green above, usually with iridescent orange patch in center of throat, bill short and thin; tail rounded, outer feathers banded rufous, black and white; Juvenile females show little or no rufous in central tail feathers, upper tail coverts; not safely separable from female Allen's in the field
Range: nests from southern Oregon to southeastern Alaska, east to western Montana; winters from northern to south-central Mexico
Status in AZ: migrant only, rare to uncommon in spring (March-April), common to abundant in fall (July-Sept.)
Habitat: conifer forest
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds in late winter to early spring, leaves as early as June (adult males) for wintering grounds in western and southern Mexico; common migrant along Pacific Coast and through the western mountains, occasionally wanders east during migration to winter in southeastern U.S. and along Gulf Coast, rare elsewhere in the East in fall and winter

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Allen's Hummingbird
Selasphorus sasin
Size:
3 3/4"
Adult male: red-orange to yellow-orange gorget, bright green back, rufous rump, tail feathers rufous with black tips, outermost pair extremely narrow and pointed; modified outer primaries make a metallic whine in flight; Juvenile male similar to female but with more rufous on upper tail coverts and central tail feathers, more heavily spangled throat, often with a few orange feathers; usually not safely separable from Juvenile male Rufous in the field
Female: like female Rufous Hummingbird but with slightly narrower tail feathers; usually not safely separable from female Rufous in the field
Range: nests along Pacific Coast from southern California to southern Oregon; uncommon permanent resident on the Palos Verdes Peninsula and nearby coastal islands of southern California (S. s. sedentarius); winters in south-central Mexico
Status in AZ: accidental in spring migration and winter, rare in fall migration in southeastern AZ (Patagonia, Madera Canyon, Miller Canyon); almost unknown from northern and central AZ
Habitat: chaparral, woodland
Nesting season: late spring through summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds in late winter to early spring, leaves by late summer for wintering grounds in south-central Mexico, except for non-migratory population in southern California; southward migration is farther east for some individuals, a few may stray to Gulf Coast or Eastern Seaboard states

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Broad-tailed Hummingbird
Selasphorus platycercus
Size:
4"
Broad-tailed female by Sheri WilliamsonBroad-tailed Hummingbird, adult maleAdult male (near right): rose red to hot pink gorget, bright green back, upper breast white, tail pointed, outer feathers blunt-tipped, black with narrow rufous edging; modified outer primaries make a silvery trill in flight; Juvenile male similar to female but with more heavily spangled throat, often with a few red feathers
Female (far right): pale rufous and white below, bright green above, throat pale cream delicately spangled with bronze green, bill medium length and thin; tail long and rounded, outer tail feathers banded rufous, black and white, no rufous in upper tail coverts
Range: nests from southern Arizona and far western Texas to Idaho and Wyoming; resident from northwestern Mexico to Guatemala
Status in AZ: summer resident in conifer forest, uncommon to common in southeastern "sky island" mountains (Chiricahuas, Huachucas, Santa Ritas, Santa Catalinas, Mules, Pinaleos), common to abundant in the north (Flagstaff, White Mountains)
Habitat: pine-oak woodland, conifer forest, mountain meadows
Nesting season: summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds in late winter to early spring, leaves by early fall for wintering grounds in western and southern Mexico; occasionally wanders east to winter along Gulf Coast

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Calliope Hummingbird
Stellula calliope
Size:
3 1/4"
Calliope female by Sheri WilliamsonCalliope Hummingbird, adult maleAdult male (near right): gorget of wine red streaks over white background, upper breast white, bill very short, back green, tail very short (barely reaching wing tips), notched, outer feathers gray and blunt-tipped; Juvenile male similar to female but with more heavily spangled throat, often with a few red feathers
Female (far right): pale rufous and white below, bright green above, throat pale cream delicately spangled with bronze green, bill very short and thin, tail very short (barely reaching wing tips), slightly notched, outer tail feathers gray, black and white, often with a small amount of rufous
Range: nests from northern Baja California north to central British Columbia, east to Wyoming, Montana and western Alberta; winters in western and southwestern Mexico
Status in AZ: rare to uncommon spring migrant, mostly through mountains; uncommon to common fall migrant at all elevations
Habitat: conifer forest, mountain meadows
Nesting season: summer
Migration: arrives on breeding grounds in spring, leaves by late summer for wintering grounds in western and southern Mexico; occasionally wanders east to winter along Gulf Coast

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Bumblebee Hummingbird
Atthis heloisa
Size: 3 1/4"
Adult male: gorget red-purple to blue-violet, pointed tips of feathers at corners creates jagged edges; upper breast and midline white, sides and flanks green; bill very short, black; back green, tail short (extending slightly beyond wing tips), rounded, outer feathers banded rufous, black and white as in female; outer primary narrowed, creating distinctive buzzy wing sound; similar to male Calliope except for solid gorget, tail pattern
Female: white below with rufous sides and flanks, bright green above; throat white to pale cream delicately spangled with bronze green, bill very short and thin, tail short (extending slightly beyond wing tips), rounded, outer tail feathers banded rufous, black and white; very similar to female Calliope
Range: Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre del Sur, and Central Volcanic Range of Mexico, north to southern Chihuahua and Tamaulipas
Status in AZ: accidental; 2 specimens collected in the Huachuca Mountains in July 1896, no subsequent records
Habitat: mountain conifer forest, pine-oak woodland
Nesting season: summer
Migration: little known

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White-lined Sphinx Moth ("hummingbird moth," "baby hummingbird")
Hyles lineata
Size: approx. 2"
Adult: abdomen marked with olive brown, black, white, and pink checkering, olive brown thorax striped in white. Wings seldom seen except as a blur; front pair olive brown with pale diagonal slash crisscrossed by fine white lines, rear pair banded in salmon pink and black. Two narrow antennae extend from front of head above thin black proboscis and large dark eyes; six long, thread-like white legs may dangle downward or be held against body.
Behavior: Does not perch, chirp, or defend nectar sources as hummingbirds typically do. Silent except for faint wing whir, seldom comes to rest. Active night and day but most often observed between sunset and sunrise and on cloudy days. Takes nectar from a variety of plants, including many visited by hummingbirds. Often allows much closer approach than a hummingbird would without apparent response.
Caterpillar: smooth skin marked with stripes, lines, and dots of black, yellow, green and white. Rear end sports a long, stinger-like "horn" that is actually flexible and harmless (hence the name "hornworm"). Feeds on many plants, including some cultivated species; wild four-o'clocks (Boerhaavia) are a popular host in Arizona. Caterpillars on vegetables or ornamental plants can be controlled by hand removal or use of a product containing the natural pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
Range: much of North America. Many other medium-sized sphinx moths are mistaken for hummingbirds; see Plate 31 in A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America for more examples.
Habitat: gardens, meadows, grasslands, woodlands

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For more information on southeastern Arizona's hummingbirds, please write, call or e-mail:
Southeastern Arizona Bird Observatory
P.O. Box 5521
Bisbee, AZ 85603-5521
(520) 432-1388
Contact SABO

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All photos, graphics, and text on these pages are protected by international copyright laws
and may not be used without permission.


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